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MASS4D Orthotic Insoles


prevention, pain-relief, posture and performance

Anatomy of the Foot

MASS4D Science

Integrated Multi-Axial Theory™

Biomechanical Integration

The concept of biomechanical integration involves the consideration of the human body in its entire complexity wherein each individual articulation is a part of a well-connected chain with spheres of influence ranging from distal to proximal in relation to the problematic area.

The functional integration of the foot and ankle becomes an area of prime interest in this regard especially when examining the chain reaction it sets forth during the gait cycle.

Anatomical Planes of the Body
Anatomical Planes of the Foot

Optimal Biomechanics

An effective foot orthotic needs to provide for constant postural adjustments and readjustments undertaken by the whole body on variable terrains and at variable speeds.

This is at the core of optimal foot biomechanics, necessitating the need to recognise the function of all the articulations in the foot and ankle rather than focusing on a single site of pathology or dysfunction or standard of care.

A high-calibre orthotic must enhance balance and posture of the body by performing a supportive function from the plantar surface of the foot proximally to the central nervous system, throughout all types of daily activities.

Our functional multi-axial supportive device,
specifically caters to numerous biomechanical needs.

Kinetic Chain

MASS4D® orthotics are designed to provide for the functional needs of the feet by ensuring that the joints and muscles are able to work well within their normal range of motion. By regulating improper foot movement, the body remains in a more stable and balanced position.

Whether used on their own or as a part of an active rehabilitation programme, an overall improvement in the movement and balance of the body, can be felt within weeks of using the product.

This is achieved by establishing a foot posture that can help an individual remain as active as possible without the risk of developing common foot problems that can greatly affect their ability to walk.

The Kinetic Chain
Degrees of Motion of the Foot

Multi-Axial foot movement

The Integrated Multi-Axial Theory™ looks at a foot during mid-stance, with the heel, first and fifth metatarsals all on the ground to see the maximum supination available in closed chain posture.

This foot presentation has a healthy medial arch, ankle and midfoot with all having proper functional range of motion. If this posture is not present at mid-stance then it is a red flag for biomechanical failure. 

A foot moving within this integrated multi-axial™ position at stance phase has several advantages, such as:

 - adequate supination at heel strike
 - a forefoot makes full contact on the ground at mid-stance
 - the majority of forefoot load is on the first metatarsal joint at heel lift
 - the first metatarsal phalange joint is not limited in dorsiflexion


Foot posture measurements and assessments using the integrated multi-axial principles allow for the inclusion of the complex arthokinetic movement within the foot.

If we accept that there is an optimal foot posture unique for each individual (however based on the same reference points) then it provides a more accurate frame of reference for treatment and outcome review. 

The Physiology of the Joints
Foot Motion


It is our duty to continue to challenge research and find the theories and methods that will best serve our patients.

The foot is an amazing appendage with intricate movements and a structural responsibility to support our entire skeletal system. 

The Integrated Multi-Axial Theory™ provides the best opportunity for broad assessment and treatment planning.

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