2 day delivery worldwide

Posture And Low Back Pain During Pregnancy — 3D Study

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics May 15, 2018


This study aimed to assess spinal curvatures and static postural characteristics with three-dimensional surface topography and to connect this to the occurrence of back pain complaints among pregnant women.

Sixty-five women at 4 to 39 weeks of pregnancy were examined and surveyed with Oswestry Disability Index; posture was evaluated using surface topography.

The system used in this study consisted of three modules: 3D measurement system, centralised database, and data analysis software on the client side.

During the body surface evaluation process, the subject stood still inside a calibrated measurement volume while a series of images was projected onto his or her body surface.

Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     know more

The shape of the back of the trunk surface was calculated based on the deformation of the raster.

The client software was used to mark relevant anatomical landmarks on the back surface: C7 spinous processus, left and right shoulders, left and right axillae, left and right scapulae, left and right waist triangles, left and right posterior superior iliac spines, top of intergluteal furrow and thoracic kyphosis to lumbar lordosis transition point.

Based on the position of these landmarks, the automatic calculation was performed to obtain well-known and commonly used parameters for back surface evaluation.

The findings of this study established that lordosis and kyphosis angles increased insignificantly with the advancement of gestation.

The authors noticed a bit more intense pain in patients with more pronounced postural changes, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Difficulties in sitting and standing were confirmed to be significant in the third trimester of pregnancy.

The overall tendency for significant lumbar curvature changes in pregnant women was not confirmed.

The methodology used in the group of analysed cases could not confirm significant changes in sagittal trunk inclination in relation to the plumb line.

Copyright 2018 MASS4D® All rights reserved.

Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     know more


  1. Glinkowski, W. M., Tomasik, P., Walesiak, K., Gluszak, M., Krawczak, K., Michoński, J., Czyżewska, A., Żukowska, A., Sitnik, R., Wielgoś, M. (2016) Posture And Low Back Pain During Pregnancy — 3D Study. Ginekologia Polska: 2016, Vol. 87, No. 8, pp. 575-580. DOI: 10.5603/GP.2016.0047

Also in Clinicians Blog

Prevention of Diabetic Foot Complications

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics November 13, 2018

This paper aimed to discuss the importance of prevention and the authors’ protocol for prevention – in the form of education and foot screening – and to review the existing evidence in the literature regarding the effectiveness of the preventive approach.

Read More

Foot Disorders, Foot Posture, and Foot Function: The Framingham Foot Study

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics November 04, 2018

The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between foot disorders, and foot posture and function in a population-based sample of adults.

Read More

Potential for foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis according to the shape of the foot arch in young adults

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics October 30, 2018

This study aimed to verify the potential for functional abnormality of the foot and plantar fasciitis among people with flat feet.

Read More