30 recreational runners were enrolled for this study.
The running volume of all participants had crossed 24.1 km·wk–1 in the preceding 3 months. None had any history of injuries or surgery to the lower limbs and did not complain of any pain whilst running.
Each participant was asked to run for 5 minutes on a treadmill at his or her preferred speed in order to determine their preferred step rate. Once this was established, the participants were asked to run at a step rate equal to 90%, 100% or 110% of their preferred step rate.
An 8-camera, passive motion-capture system was used to record whole-body-kinematics for 15 seconds during each of the runs, while an instrumented treadmill simultaneously recorded ground reaction forces and moments.
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