a 96% satisfaction rate for sore feet worldwide - express delivery

Core Stability – How It Affects The Lower Extremity

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics June 14, 2017

Core Stability – How It Affects The Lower Extremity

The inclusion of core stabilisation exercises in training and preventative programmes is essential to protect an individual from injury and improve athletic performance.

This is because the core represents the centre of the functional kinetic chain, playing a critical role in maintaining effective dynamic joint stability from the foot all through to the lumbar spine.

As mentioned in a study conducted by Wilkerson et al., core stability is defined as “the ability to control the position and motion of the trunk over the pelvis and leg to allow optimum production, transfer and control of force and motion to the terminal segment in integrated kinetic chain activities”.

While studying the prediction of core and lower extremity strains and sprains in collegiate football players, the authors established that suboptimal endurance of the core musculature and low back dysfunction are associated with impaired neuromuscular control of the body’s centre of mass.

Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     buy now

These are also responsible for inhibiting lower extremity muscles and increasing the chances of injury leading the authors to advocate individualised core stability training regimens and pre-participation screening of injury risk as a measure to protect and prevent core and lower extremity injuries in collegiate football players.

Kellie Huxel Bliven, from the Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences at AT Still University in Arizona, reviewed articles with literature pertaining to core stability risk factors, assessment and training.

The author established that substantial evidence exists to correlate core muscle recruitment alterations and low back pain; the transversus abdominus recruitment was found to be delayed in the upper and lower extremity movements of patients with low back pain.

In addition to this, the gluteus maximus activation was also observed to be delayed, suggesting an inability to compress and stabilise the sacroiliac joint and pelvis with associated lower extremity movement.

The prevalence of an underlying biomechanical disturbance such as a hyperpronated foot can hamper successful outcomes in the treatment of low back pain; this is why a comprehensive management strategy should include customised foot orthotics such as MASS4D®.

Abnormal foot pronation causes an excessive internal rotation of the ipsilateral tibia and ipsilateral femur leading to a knee valgus and consequent increase in the Q-angle.

The resulting compensatory abnormality in the form of an anterior ipsilateral pelvic tilt can exert significant pressure on the muscles of the low back, further increasing the risk for lower back pain.

The role of MASS4D® orthotics in a preventative care programme for lower back pain would be to augment the efforts of individualised exercise routines by providing the greatest supportive force to the feet in order to minimise the occurrences of compensatory movements in the lower extremity and reduce stress on the lower back muscles.

Copyright 2017 MASS4D® All rights reserved.

Offer your Patients a Custom Calibrated Insole with a 98% Patient Satisfaction Rate     buy now

Related Links

Improving Sports Performance with a Healthy Foot Posture
The Association between Calf Tightness and Back Pain
Why MASS4D® Orthotics?


  1. Bliven, K. C. H., Anderson, B. E. (2013) Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention. Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach: November 2013, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 514-522. DOI: 10.1177/1941738113481200
  2. Wilkerson, G. B., Giles, J. L., Seibel, D. K. (2012) Prediction of Core and Lower Extremity Strains and Sprains in Collegiate Football Players: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Athletic Training: June 2012, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 264-272. DOI: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.3.17 

Also in Clinicians Blog

Lower Limb Injuries In Fencing
Lower Limb Injuries in Fencing

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics October 21, 2018

There are various injuries of the lower extremity that can occur in the sport of fencing because of, for instance, quick ‘propulsion’ and ‘dodge’ offense/defense movements and other risk factors. 

Read More

The Epidemiology of Marathon Running Injuries
The Epidemiology of Marathon Running Injuries

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics August 12, 2018

Gaining a better understanding of the epidemiology of common running injuries can help in the formulation of appropriate preventive strategies. Such strategies can minimise the incidences of injuries while helping the athlete achieve the most out of their performance.

Read More

Lower Limb Injuries in Field Hockey
Lower Limb Injuries in Field Hockey

by MASS4D® Prescription Orthotics July 22, 2018

The rapid succession of movements and sudden changes in direction increases the predisposition of hockey players to injuries affecting the lower limbs. There are many other factors that can also contribute to the development of such injuries – playing position, playing surface, foot postural disparities etc.

Read More