The consumption of tobacco poses many health risks and according to the World Health Organization, it is the cause of 7 million deaths every year.
A number of irreversible health conditions may also be caused by the large-scale use of tobacco, as it has the potential to affect one’s quality of life and increase health care costs.
Cigarette smoke can have negative effects on the muscular and skeletal system. The effects of smoking on the lower body should be considered as it increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and peripheral vascular disease.
A 2013 study in the Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal highlights the fact that smoking plays a major role in the development of bone loss across the skeletal system. The loss of bone mineral content may increase the risk of fractures in smokers as nicotine can affect bone metabolism.
The risk of fractures can also be associated with the wide-spread effects of smoking on vascular health, oxygen supply, muscle strength and overall muscle performance. The negative effects of smoking may affect balance in individuals, thereby increasing the risk of fall injuries.
A 2015 study in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine established that smoking contributed to reduced muscle mass and strength. It outlined that smokers have weaker muscles which are less fatigue-resistant than those of non-smokers.
Breaking the Habit
Cutting down on smoking is strongly recommended by clinicians because of the numerous health improvements and reduced risk of problems. For example, the function of the lungs improves by approximately 5% within months of quitting.
A detailed examination of the walking stride of the individual is important during diagnosis, especially in chronic smokers. This is because the risk of fall and lower body injuries may increase as a result of foot posture problems.
For instance, with flat feet, there is more stress placed on the ankles, knees, hips, and the lower back. With weakened muscle strength, risk of injuries may increase.
MASS4D® foot insoles are recommended as part of comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation plans. These help support the feet in the healthiest posture to reduce stress on the lower body caused by a poor foot posture.
MASS4D® insoles can be used in preventing the development of problems that affect the structure and function of the lower body.
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**World Health Organization fact sheet – May 2017**
Reference: Degens, H., Gayan-Ramirez, G., van Hees, H. W. H. (2015) Smoking-induced Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: March 2015, Vol. 191, No. 6, pp. 620-625
Reference: Abate, M., Vanni, D., Pantalone, A., Salini, V. (2013) Cigarette Smoking and Musculoskeletal Disorders. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal: 2013, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 63-69
Reference: Fagerström, K. (2002) The Epidemiology of Smoking. Drugs: February 2002, Suppl. 2, pp. 1-9
People often wonder if there’s a cure for flat feet. While it is tempting to seek out a permanent solution for the condition, it helps to know which treatment is the most effective in getting results.
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